This sanctuary is located in Chandrapur district in the Vidharba region of Maharashtra. Majority of the area is under thick forest that is wood land, with small patches of grass lands distributed over the entire protected area.
The land vegetation is Southern Tropical Dry deciduous type. Teak is the dominant tree specie. Other major tree species found in this sanctuary are - Ain, Arjun, Behda, Bija Pterocarpus Bhera, Bel, Chichwa, Dhawada, Ghoti, Hiwar Kalam, Mahua, Mowai, Rohan, Salai, Semal Shisham, Sisoo, Shivan, Surya, Sirus, and Tendu.
Chaprala Wildlife Sanctuary is a home of variety of wild animals. Out of 23 species of mammals recorded in this area, there are 4 species of mammals, which are of endangered status, namely Tiger, Leopard, Jungle cat, Sloth Bear, and Wild dog. There are 131 species of avifauna recorded in the Protected Area of which as many as three bird species are of endangered status.
There are 2 species of reptiles, which are of endangered status namely Indian Python, and Common Indian Monitar. Others include Black Buck, Wild Boar, Spotted Deer, Sambar, Barking Deer, Blue Bull, Common Langoor, Harep, Jackal, Mungoose, Peacock, Jungle Fowl, and Flying Squirrel.